Arthritis,Disease,Acutreatment,Cure without medicine,Joint disorder,Osteoarthritis,Rheumatoid arthritis,Gout and pseudo-gout,Septic arthritis,Ankylosing spondylitis,Juvenile idiopathic arthritis,Still's disease,Signs and symptoms,Malaise and fatigue,Weight loss,Muscle aches,Muscle weakness,Disability,Physical therapy,Alternative medicine

Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation in one or more joints. There are over 100 different forms of arthritis. The most common form of arthritis is osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease), a result of trauma to the joint, infection of the joint, or age. Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritispsoriatic arthritis, and related autoimmune diseasesSeptic arthritis is caused by joint infection.

The major complaint by individuals who have arthritis is joint pain. Pain is often constant, and may be localized to the joint affected. The pain from arthritis is due to inflammation that occurs around the joint, damage to the joint from disease, daily wear and tear of joint, muscle strains caused by forceful movements against stiff painful joints and fatigue.

Hands affected by rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune form of arthritis

Hands affected by rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune form of arthritis

Classification

There are several diseases where joint pain is primary, and is considered the main feature. Generally when a person has “arthritis” it means that they have one of these diseases, which include:

Joint pain can also be a symptom of other diseases. In this case, the arthritis is considered to be secondary to the main disease; these include:

  • Psoriasis (Psoriatic arthritis)
  • Reactive arthritis
  • Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
  • Haemochromatosis
  • Hepatitis
  • Lyme disease
  • Sjogren’s disease
  • Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis
  • Celiac disease
  • Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis)
  • Henoch-Schönlein purpura
  • Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with recurrent fever
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Whipple’s disease
  • TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (and many other vasculitis syndromes)
  • Familial Mediterranean fever
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

An undifferentiated arthritis is an arthritis that does not fit into well-known clinical disease categories, possibly being an early stage of a definite rheumatic disease.

Prevalence

Disability due to musculoskeletal disorders increased by 45% from 1990 to 2010. Of these, osteoarthritis is the fastest increasing major health condition. Among the many reports on the increased prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions, data from Africa are lacking and underestimated. A systematic review assessed the prevalence of arthritis and included twenty population-based and seven hospital-based studies. The majority of studies, twelve, were from South Africa. Nine studies were well-conducted, eleven studies were of moderate quality, and seven studies were conducted poorly. The results of the systematic review were as follows:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis: 0.1% in Algeria (urban setting); 0.6% in Democratic Republic of Congo (urban setting); 2.5% and 0.07% in urban and rural settings in South Africa respectively; 0.3% in Egypt (rural setting), 0.4% in Lesotho (rural setting)
  • Osteoarthritis: 55.1% in South Africa (urban setting); ranged from 29.5 to 82.7% in South Africans aged 65 years and older
    • Knee osteoarthritis has the highest prevalence from all types sites of osteoarthritis, with 33.1% in rural South Africa
  • Ankylosing spondylitis: 0.1% in South Africa (rural setting)
  • Psoriatic arthritis: 4.4% in South Africa (urban setting)
  • Gout: 0.7% in South Africa (urban setting)
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 0.3% in Egypt (urban setting)

Signs and symptoms

Pain, which can vary in severity, is a common symptom in virtually all types of arthritis. Other symptoms include swellingjoint stiffnessand aching around the joint(s). Arthritic disorders like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis can affect other organs in the body, leading to a variety of symptoms. Symptoms may include:

  • Inability to use the hand or walk
  • Stiffness, which may be worse in the morning, or after use
  • Malaise and fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Poor sleep
  • Muscle aches and pains
  • Tenderness
  • Difficulty moving the joint

It is common in advanced arthritis for significant secondary changes to occur. For example, arthritic symptoms might make it difficult for a person to move around and/or exercise, which can lead to secondary effects, such as:

  • Muscle weakness
  • Loss of flexibility
  • Decreased aerobic fitness

These changes, in addition to the primary symptoms, can have a huge impact on quality of life.

Disability

Arthritis is the most common cause of disability in the USA. More than 20 million individuals with arthritis have severe limitations in function on a daily basis. Absenteeism and frequent visits to the physician are common in individuals who have arthritis. Arthritis can make it very difficult for individuals to be physically active and some become home bound.

It is estimated that the total cost of arthritis cases is close to $100 billion of which almost 50% is from lost earnings. Each year, arthritis results in nearly 1 million hospitalizations and close to 45 million outpatient visits to health care centers.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.