Asthma,Disease,Acutreatment Cure without medicine,wheezing,coughing,gastro esophageal reflux disease,rhinosinusitis,Acutreatment,Medicine,Hygiene hypothesis,Medical conditions,Pathophysiology,Diagnosis,Cure without medicine,Asthma Disease,Asthma Diagnosis,bronchiectasis,chronic bronchitis, ephysema,Cure,

Asthma is a common long term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include episodes of wheezingcoughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These episodes may occur a few times a day or a few times per week. Depending on the person they may become worse at night or with exercise.

Asthma attack illustration

Asthma attack illustration

Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Environmental factors include exposure to air pollution and allergens. Other potential triggers include medications such as aspirin and beta blockers. Diagnosis is usually based on the pattern of symptoms, response to therapy over time, and spirometry. Asthma is classified according to the frequency of symptoms, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate. It may also be classified as atopic or non-atopic where atopy refers to a predisposition toward developing a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction.

There is no cure for asthma. Symptoms can be prevented by avoiding triggers, such as allergens and irritants, and by the use of inhaled corticosteroidsLong-acting beta agonists (LABA) or antileukotriene agents may be used in addition to inhaled corticosteroids if asthma symptoms remain uncontrolled. Treatment of rapidly worsening symptoms is usually with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist such as salbutamol and corticosteroids taken by mouth. In very severe cases, intravenous corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate, and hospitalization may be required.

In 2013, 242 million people globally had asthma up from 183 million in 1990. It caused about 489,000 deaths in 2013, most of which occurred in the developing world. It often begins in childhood. The rates of asthma have increased significantly since the 1960s. Asthma was recognized as early as Ancient Egypt. The word asthma is from the Greek ἅσθμα, ásthma which means “panting”.

Asthma Lungs

Asthma Lungs

Signs and symptoms

Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezingshortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughingSputum may be produced from the lung by coughing but is often hard to bring up. During recovery from an attack, it may appear pus-likedue to high levels of white blood cells called eosinophils. Symptoms are usually worse at night and in the early morning or in response to exercise or cold air. Some people with asthma rarely experience symptoms, usually in response to triggers, whereas others may have marked and persistent symptoms.

Associated conditions

A number of other health conditions occur more frequently in those with asthma, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), rhinosinusitis, and obstructive sleep apnea.Psychological disorders are also more common, with anxiety disorders occurring in between 16–52% and mood disorders in 14–41%. However, it is not known if asthma causes psychological problems or if psychological problems lead to asthma. Those with asthma, especially if it is poorly controlled, are at high risk for radiocontrast reactions.

Causes

Asthma is caused by a combination of complex and incompletely understood environmental and genetic interactions. These factors influence both its severity and its responsiveness to treatment. It is believed that the recent increased rates of asthma are due to changing epigenetics (heritable factors other than those related to the DNA sequence) and a changing living environment. Onset before age 12 is more likely due to genetic influence, while onset after 12 is more likely due to environmental influence.

Environmental

Many environmental factors have been associated with asthma’s development and exacerbation including allergens, air pollution, and other environmental chemicals. Smoking during pregnancy and after delivery is associated with a greater risk of asthma-like symptoms. Low air quality from factors such as traffic pollution or high ozone levels, has been associated with both asthma development and increased asthma severity. Over half of cases in children in the United States occur in areas with air quality below EPA standards.Exposure to indoor volatile organic compounds may be a trigger for asthma; formaldehyde exposure, for example, has a positive association. Also, phthalates in certain types ofPVC are associated with asthma in children and adults.

There is an association between acetaminophen (paracetamol) use and asthma. The majority of the evidence does not, however, support a causal role. A 2014 review found that the association disappeared when respiratory infections were taken into account. Use by a mother during pregnancy is also associated with an increased risk as is psychological stress during pregnancy.

Asthma is associated with exposure to indoor allergens. Common indoor allergens include dust mitescockroaches, animal dander, and mold. Efforts to decrease dust mites have been found to be ineffective on symptoms in sensitized subjects. Certain viral respiratory infections, such as respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus, may increase the risk of developing asthma when acquired as young children. Certain other infections, however, may decrease the risk.

Hygiene hypothesis

The hygiene hypothesis attempts to explain the increased rates of asthma worldwide as a direct and unintended result of reduced exposure, during childhood, to non-pathogenic bacteria and viruses. It has been proposed that the reduced exposure to bacteria and viruses is due, in part, to increased cleanliness and decreased family size in modern societies. Exposure to bacterial endotoxin in early childhood may prevent the development of asthma, but exposure at an older age may provoke bronchoconstriction. Evidence supporting the hygiene hypothesis includes lower rates of asthma on farms and in households with pets.

Use of antibiotics in early life has been linked to the development of asthma. Also, delivery via caesarean section is associated with an increased risk (estimated at 20–80%) of asthma—this increased risk is attributed to the lack of healthy bacterial colonization that the newborn would have acquired from passage through the birth canal. There is a link between asthma and the degree of affluence.

Genetic

Family history is a risk factor for asthma, with many different genes being implicated. If one identical twin is affected, the probability of the other having the disease is approximately 25%. By the end of 2005, 25 genes had been associated with asthma in six or more separate populations, including GSTM1IL10CTLA-4SPINK5LTC4SIL4R and ADAM33, among others. Many of these genes are related to the immune system or modulating inflammation. Even among this list of genes supported by highly replicated studies, results have not been consistent among all populations tested. In 2006 over 100genes were associated with asthma in one genetic association study alone; more continue to be found.

Some genetic variants may only cause asthma when they are combined with specific environmental exposures. An example is a specific single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD14 region and exposure to endotoxin (a bacterial product). Endotoxin exposure can come from several environmental sources including tobacco smoke, dogs, and farms. Risk for asthma, then, is determined by both a person’s genetics and the level of endotoxin exposure.

Medical conditions

A triad of atopic eczemaallergic rhinitis and asthma is called atopy. The strongest risk factor for developing asthma is a history of atopic disease; with asthma occurring at a much greater rate in those who have either eczema or hay fever. Asthma has been associated with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Churg–Strauss syndrome), an autoimmune disease and vasculitis. Individuals with certain types of urticaria may also experience symptoms of asthma.

There is a correlation between obesity and the risk of asthma with both having increased in recent years. Several factors may be at play including decreased respiratory function due to a buildup of fat and the fact that adipose tissue leads to a pro-inflammatory state.

Beta blocker medications such as propranolol can trigger asthma in those who are susceptible. Cardioselective beta-blockers, however, appear safe in those with mild or moderate disease. Other medications that can cause problems in asthmatics are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitorsaspirin, and NSAIDs.

Exacerbation

Some individuals will have stable asthma for weeks or months and then suddenly develop an episode of acute asthma. Different individuals react to various factors in different ways. Most individuals can develop severe exacerbation from a number of triggering agents.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.