Sciatica,lower back to the lower leg

Sciatica is a health condition characterized by pain from the lower back to the lower leg. This pain can go to the back, outside, or front of the leg. The onset is often followed by activities such as heavy lifting, although a gradual onset may also occur. Pain is often described as shooting. Typically, symptoms occur only on one side of the body. However, there may be pain on both sides due to some reasons. Lower back pain sometimes occurs. There may be weakness or numbness in the affected leg and various parts of the foot.

Sciatica

Anterior view showing the sciatic nerve going down the right leg

About 90% of sciatica is caused by a spinal herniation that is pressed on one of the lumbar or sacral nerve roots. Spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis, piriformis syndrome, pelvic tumor and pregnancy are other possible causes of sciatica. A straight-leg lifting test is often helpful in diagnosis. The test is positive if, when the leg is raised when a person is lying on their back, the pain shoots below the knee. Medical imaging is not required in most cases. However, imaging can be achieved if bowel or bladder function is affected, there is significant loss of feeling or weakness, symptoms persist for a long time, or there is concern for tumors or infections. Similar conditions can cause hip diseases and infections such as early shingles (before the formation of rashes).

Initial treatment usually involves pain medications. Although evidence for pain medication and muscle relaxants is lacking. It is generally recommended that people proceed with normal activity according to their abilities. Sciatica is all the time required for resolution; Symptoms resolve in less than six weeks in about 90% of people. If the pain is severe and lasts for more than six weeks, surgery may be an option. While surgery often improves pain, its long-term benefits are unclear. If complications occur, surgery may be required, such as decreased normal bowel or bladder functionality. There is limited or poor evidence for their use in many treatments, including corticosteroids, gabapentin, pregabalin, acupuncture, heat or ice, and spinal manipulation.

Depending on how it is defined, less than 1% to 40% of people have sciatica at some point. It is most common in people during their 40s and 50s, and males are more affected than females. This condition has been known since ancient times. The first known use of the term sciatica since 1451.

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